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Technology

1. IP (Ingress Protection) rating for enclosures

2. NEMA rating for enclosures

3. Capacitive ouchscreen

4. Resistive touchscreen

 

 1. IP (Ingress Protection) rating for enclosures

IP rating consists of two or three numbers (e.g. IP65) and each represents different protection strength provided by the enclosure. The first measures the strength of protection against solids and the second measures the strength of protection against liquids. The third number measures protection against mechanical impacts but it's commonly omitted.

First number of IP rating:

  • 0: No protection
  • 1: Protect against solid objects up to 50mm, e.g. accidental touch by persons hands
  • 2: Protect against solid objects up to 12mm, e.g. persons fingers
  • 3: Protect against solid objects over 2.5mm (tools and wires)
  • 4: Potect against solid objects over 1mm (tools, wires and small wires)
  • 5: Portect against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit)
  • 6: Protect against dust

Secont number of IP rating:

  • 0: No protection
  • 1: Protect against vertically falling drops of water e.g. condensation
  • 2: Protect against direct sprays of water up to 15º from the vertical
  • 3: Protect against direct sprays of water up to 60º from the vertical
  • 4: Protect against water sprayed from all direction - limited ingress permitted
  • 5: Protect against low pressure jets of water from all direction - limited ingress
  • 6: Protect against temporary flooding of water e.g. for use on ship desks - limited ingress permitted
  • 7: Protect against the effect of immersion between 15cm and 1cm
  • 8: Protect against long periods of immersion under pressure 

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2. NEMA rating for enclosures

NEMA rating consists of one number and it defines what an enclosure is designed to protect against when it is completely and properly installed in a non-hazardous location.

  • NEMA 1: Typically constructed for indoor use to provide protection against incidental contact for personnel with the enclosed equipment and also protect against falling dirt
  • NEMA 2: NEMA 1 plus protection against dripping and light splashing of liquids
  • NEMA 3: NEMA 1 plus protection against  rain, sleet, snow, windblown dust and will be undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure
  • NEMA 3R: NEMA 3 excluding protection against windblown dust
  • NEME 3S: NEMA 1 plus protection against  rain, sleet, snow, windblown dust and in which the external mechanisms remain operable when ice laden
  • NEMA 4: Typically constructed for either indoor or outdoor use to protect again incidental contact between personnel and the enclosed equipment. It also protect against falling dirt, rain, sleet, snow, windblown dust, splashing water, and hose-directed water and will be undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure
  • NEMA 4X: NEMA 4 plus protect against corrosion
  • NEMA 5: Typically constructed for indoor use to provide protection against incidental contact between personnel and the enclosed equipment. It also protect against falling dirt, settling airborne dust, lint, fibers, and flyings and against dripping and light splashing of liquids
  • NEMA 6:Typically constructed for either indoor or outdoor use to protect against incidental contact between personnel and the enclosed equipment. It also protect against falling dirt,  hose-directed water and the entry of water during occasional temporary submersion at a limited depth and will be undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure
  • NEMA 6P: NEMA 6 plus protect against the entry of water during prolonged submersion at the limited depth
  • NEMA 7: Typically designed for indoor use in locations classified as Class I, Groups A, B, C, or D and capable of withstanding the pressures resulting from a internal explosion of specified gases, and contain such an explosion sufficiently that an explosive gas-air mixture existing in the atmosphere surrounding the enclosure will not be ignited. Enclosed heat generating devices shall not cause external surfaces to reach temperatures capable of igniting explosive gas-air mixtures in the surrounding atmosphere. Enclosures shall meet explosion, hydro-static, and temperature design tests.
  • NEMA 9: Typically designed for indoor use in locations classified as Class II, Groups E, F, or G, and capable of preventing the entrance of dust. Enclosed heat generating devices shall not cause external surfaces to reach temperatures capable of igniting or discoloring dust on the enclosure or igniting dust-air mixtures in the surrounding atmosphere. Enclosures shall meet dust penetration and temperature design tests, and aging of gaskets (if used).
  • NEMA 12: Enclosures constructed (without knockouts) for indoor use to provide a degree of protection to personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment; to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt; against circulating dust, lint, fibers, and flyings; and against dripping and light splashing of liquids.
  • NEMA 12K: NEMA 12 plus enclosures constructed with knockouts
  • NEMA 13: Enclosures constructed for indoor use to provide a degree of protection to personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment; to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt; against circulating dust, lint, fibers, and flyings; and against the spraying, splashing, and seepage of water, oil, and non-corrosive coolants.
     

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3. Capacitive touchscreen

A capacitive touchscreen consists of a glass panel with a surface coating of charge storing material. Circuits To measure the location of a touch, frequency changes from the capacitance of a person are measured by circuits located at corners of the screen.

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4. Resistive touchscreen

A resistive touchscreen consists of severa layers. When an object presses down on the panel. The layers will be connected at that point and it causes a change in the electrical current. The change will be sent to the controller for processing.

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